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Topics that impact water treatment technologies:

ZERO DISCHARGE/ZERO BLOWDOWN
Many plants and whole industries have "Closed the loop." Even the pulp and paper industry is very close to meeting this objective. Water conservation, re-use, reclamation, and recycling can solve many problems, and conserve cash and fresh water resources. A water audit, "pinch" technology, and conceptual design can form the basis for your plans to close the loop.

OUTSOURCING CHEMICAL AND EQUIPMENT PURCHASES
Outsourcing is a word used to describe a host of cost cutting strategies. Water treatment chemicals and equipment fall into this category. Proprietary chemical products, such as those from water treatment service companies, have substantial operating income margins. Informed outsourcing strategies can provide savings of 30 to 50% on proprietary products. The actual savings potential is site specific, but savings within this range have been achieved by electric utilities and other industries.

LEGIONELLA CONTROL/TESTING
Preparation for and control of the legionnaires' disease issue begins with an informed internal staff. What's new? What do we need to know? Should we test at all? How often should we test? What should we test for? What do test results mean? What are we doing now? Are we doing enough? What else can we be doing? How do we compare with others concerned with this issue. What's ahead for our cooling towers?

ENHANCED AND SUPER-ENHANCED CONDENSER TUBES
Condenser tubes which are finned on the outside, rifled on the inside, or both present special water treatment considerations. The improved thermal efficiencies of these relatively new tube designs are making them more and more popular for new AC and other refrigeration equipment systems. These tubes can be damaged by corrosion more easily than conventional, smooth tubes. They are more easily fouled by bio-mass and other undissolved solids than are smooth tubes. If you have condensers with enhanced or super-enhanced tubes, learn how to benefit from the improved heat transfer without paying the price for damaged equipment and unscheduled downtime.

CARBON STEEL TUBES
The costs associated with freon refrigerants are climbing steadily. One of the alternative refrigerants, ammonia, is being considered for future use in refrigeration equipment being designed and installed currently. Since ammonia requires steel condenser tubes, many of the new machines designed around freon replacements come with steel tubes. Water treatment for evaporative cooling systems with steel tubes is crucial. This is particularly true for those industries that use carbon steel tubed heat exchangers such as petroleum refineries and chemical plants. Special preparation and passivation procedures, as well as a consistently applied, specific steel corrosion inhibitor program are essential ingredients in the design life expectancy of these condensers.

FILM FILL
Cooling tower film fill comes in many design and material varieties. Some are more prone to fouling or premature degradation than others, but all types require special consideration of microbiological application and control programs. Film fill requires wetted, clean surfaces and open, unclogged passages in order to deliver the thermal and energy efficiencies designed into it. If you use film fill or are considering film fill as a replacement for conventional splash fill, we can provide the water treatment performance perspective.

OZONE & OTHER OXIDATION TECHNOLOGIES
Chlorination carries with it known environmental and health and safety costs. Alternatives to chlorine are increasingly in our future, for drinking water disinfection, in paper and other industrial processes, and for cooling towers. If you are interested in learning more about the practical use of alternative oxidation technologies, we can help.

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SIDE STREAM SOFTENING
Increasing costs for fresh water and tighter restrictions on water discharges are two good reasons for side stream treatment of evaporative cooling system water. These days softening means a lot more than chemical softening or ion exchange. New water treatment technologies offer innovative ways to get more evaporation out of every gallon of make-up.

REVERSE OSMOSIS AND OTHER MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES
Membrane technologies are one of the fastest, most flexible in the water treatment field. Regenerant waste requires treatment, and increased demineralization capacity is expensive. Reverse osmosis and other treatment processes that do not use hazardous regenerant chemicals can minimize your liquid waste problems and increase the capacity of your existing ion exchange plant. We can show you how.

WHITE RUST
White Rust is the name given to the corrosion of galvanized steel cooling towers and evaporative condensers. The useful life of galvanized cooling towers depends on a corrosion prevention program which begins before the cooling tower is put into service, and preferably even before it is set in place.

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